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Creating a feeling of achievement

Gamification is often used to add feelings of achievement into an experience. Achievement is earned over time through completion of challenges or tasks. The effort the end-user has to put in to earn their achievement will determine how strong the feeling of achievement will be.

Climbing Mount Everest

People that climb Mount Everest and other major mountains, often cry when they get to the top. The climbers may comment afterwards that they didn’t expect to cry but their sense of achievement sort of expressed the amazing feat for them. Tears act as a safety valve by releasing excess stress hormones such as cortisol. To create this kind of response the effort is one that that takes preparation, planning and in a lot of cases more than one attempt to make it all the way to the top.

In a work setting a Mount Everest style achievement, may be making a promotion that you have worked hard for or closing a deal that has taken a number of months, meetings, pitches, proposals and more to realise.

Designing for achievement in gamification

When we are designing for achievement in gamification, we may also need to build in effort and tough levels. Some of the early gamification efforts gave badges somewhat like confetti under the premise of creating a sense of achievement, most of us have realised by now that this doesn’t work. They can be useful as milestone markers but their frequency and what you need to do to earn tell you quickly how valuable they are.

In learning, we associate major achievement rituals at graduation after a 4-year degree programme for example. However, completing your annual compliance training will be much less exciting, the virtue of having to do it each year is one thing and then the added perception and sometimes reality that you have seen all the material before. Making compliance and other training of this kind unnecessarily hard is also not the answer, if you want your people to comply.

Best suggestion for this kind of programme is to make it as relevant and real as possible with tangible scenarios and having your people make choices with consequences. One consequence can be that they go to jail or cause the company a big fine, of course, it needs to be a real potential risk. The more thinking and chances there are to be slightly wrong and having to start again will create a perception that first of all this isn’t as easy as I expected. Secondly, it will stimulate a bit of brain activity to make sure they read the scenarios and choices better next time. If it then takes a few run-throughs before an individual can hit a perfect score with a clean record of no bad choices, you will have evoked some stress along the way and the chances of them feeling a bit of pride and achievement are higher.

Achievement differs on an individual level

We can’t discuss achievement as a blanket approach. How we experience the world is vastly individual. Not everyone cries at the top of Mount Everest, some just sit and take it all in and others may resort to a victory dance of some kind. The work in gamification by Nicole Lazzarro around easy and hard fun as well as the player types by Andrzej Marczewski combined gives some insight that preferences exist depending on player types. Although the image is a bit old and newer versions are available, it still illustrates the point that knowing that there are differences in what players respond to and the type of level of challenge to create.

player types and fun keys

From a gamification design perspective, it is therefore good to be aware of what kind of players you have in an organisation and when they experience a sense of achievement at work. I suggest asking them in your user research when starting a project.

Achievement mechanics

The game mechanics that can create a sense of achievement are quite plentiful, here is a selection of them:

  • Levels: bronze, silver, gold
  • Status: novice, intermediate, master
  • Quality indicators: 1-5 stars
  • Progression markers: badges, points or progression bars
  • Certification
  • Victory points
  • Resources gained

You may not need to use all of them, but you may want to build them up over time and effort. The critical key is to make them meaningful by keeping them relevant to the process, the job and the level of ability you expect players to have. Another important factor is to indicate how these achievement markers can be earned, otherwise, the exercise will become pointless quite quickly.

Roadmaps and visual prompts can serve as a great reminder of the journey taken. When you are standing on the top of the mountain, you can look back to where you started. Giving a visual prompt through an image or a heads up display where all the data are gathered can again increase the sense of achievement an individual experiences.

Just understand that everyone will react differently and whilst some may do a victory dance, others will prefer to just smile knowingly and in private.

Gamification trends for 2019

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When platforms make it hard for end-users

In a world where you need a password or pin code for everything platforms can really make life ridiculously hard and prevent people from even finding your great content. I recently subscribed to a number of courses from a number of different thought leaders. As it turns out they happen to use the same platform to deliver their courses from.

Failure to login

Unfortunately thanks to the ridiculous platform login, none of them have a distinctive personalised login URL, so there is absolutely no way for the end-user to log in to the relevant course without having to request new password several times on each potential version of the platform.

After 4 unsuccessful tries, I went on and logged into to my audible account and listened to a book instead. I was keen to listen to the materials I had bought, but first thing in the morning password soup is not a great starter for a productive mood.

bad user experience design at login www.gamificationnation.com

I guess it is user experience 101 for platforms. If you have multiple people selling individual programs from your platform, you need more than my platform.com as the login URL. When I asked support for the platform to help, they referred me back to support for each and every course provider.

We give a lot of advice to buyers of platforms and occasionally also to platform providers, so here is another thing to add to our list namely to make sure you have a unique login URL from your platform providers so that your end-users have an easy user experience logging on.

In a corporate setting, platforms tend to be all set up with a single sign-on, to make it easy for employees to log in once to their computer and then to automatically have access to everything they need and have authority to use. In a small business, single sign-on is not always a given due to IT probably not being in-house.

For the platforms where the creators of courses are likely to sell to an end-user also known as B2C models, it is a must have to have unique URL for all your course creators. Unless of course you would think even further outside of the box and create a way for the end-user to merge courses on your platform, where they sign-up once even with different providers and access everything they have bought with one login.

With gamification often delivered through the use of platforms, we have to pay special attention to the user experience. Most of the time the gamification platform is integrated on existing platforms through API’s and no additional login is required to view your achievements and progress.

Login failure is the cause for many people to desert your platform and well-intentioned and possibly great content or tools. It is like showing up for work and not being able to get in the front door.

Failure to onboard

Another frequent missing part of user experience is that the design, first of all, isn’t user-friendly enough nor intuitive for users to naturally find their way around. Or it may just require a little bit of instruction to get people going and working on things.

I recently started playing a game and although I reached level 6 in the game by randomly clicking around, I am still not sure how it really works. A quick walk through or some strategically placed help buttons can alleviate this hurdle.

When it comes to learning design, learning management and gamification platforms, a lot of them require a bit of knowledge for you to be able to create a meaningful experience. On one learning design tool, we are 6 months using it and still trying to figure out in an easy way to style our work they way we want to. Having too many choices is not necessarily a good thing.

On a learning management application I was uploading some materials for a client and when I checked the release my content never showed. I couldn’t figure out why, so I had to spend useless time with support to get it fixed, whereas on-boarding would have made this something I didn’t need support for.

On a gamification platform, the choices and menus are often named slightly different from one provider to the next. Having more choices again doesn’t mean that it is actually better. Some of the best I have worked with provided simple choices and configuration menus, it makes it easier for me as the gamification designer, but also for the in-company admin or editor if they need to make changes.

Observation is key to success

I reckon a lot of these user experience issues occur due to lack of user testing or observation of the users trying to work with your system. At the end of the day, it is the end-user who will give most feedback and if in a company a vast majority complains, eventually the systems will come up for reconsideration. In a business to business sales model, you may receive feedback only from the administrators, so it is your responsibility to include end-users of all abilities and lack thereof to use the system you provide.

In business to consumer model, your buyers will quite quickly do the telling with their lack of use. Telling them to submit their improvements to an idea bank for your development roadmap is rarely satisfactory. Observing them while you are building the platform and going back to people for user testing is critical in my view to get to the right balance.

The best way to test if people find your platform intuitively easy to use is to observe novice users in their journey to get started. If you need to explain, you are missing a trick. If you need to build a course to have them understand what to do then again you need to re-think what you have built and simplify.

 

Why understanding the process is key for gamification design

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Reflecting back for progress feedback

In accounting your annual accounts provide a great opportunity to reflect back on the previous year and how certain deals or decisions lead you to the outcome you have today. In games going back to a first level or the beginning of a game often gives you a feeling that you have come a long way. If you are stuck on a particularly hard level, it is a fun thing to go back down a few levels and regenerate your confidence and efforts.

feedback is the breakfast of champions www.gamificationnation.com

Feedback is the breakfast of champions

So where is this all going, you may ask? Well, what brought this blog post about is signing up for a course and starting their online package. The online course whilst containing good value information was effectively a set of podcast recordings. I prefer reading, seeing and listening altogether to make the most of an online course and also some element of interaction (don’t get me started on the lack of structure and how it made it super hard for me as the learner). But the podcast raised a point, that I knew I had covered before in another live course and I wondered if I had actually moved on from that point, so I went looking for my course notes and the handbook.

As I went through the notes of the live course and my own thinking from 2007, it was fun to see progress and also interesting to see how some of the things I wanted then are so far removed from what I want now. I will be doing some of the exercises from that course again and save them in the folder to maybe reflect back on 10 or so years from now. It is insightful. Either way, I felt I had progressed but also not as much as I would have wanted. Hence going through the exercises again with a different mindset.

In order to improve, we look for feedback on our self today most of the time. I would say looking back and reflecting on your progress to date based on courses, notes or journals you had is useful feedback too. Probably also much more personal and close to the bone, because it is your reflection of you. Seeing it with fresh eyes and very likely after 10 years a different reality and mindset will hopefully give you some additional feedback that you hadn’t counted on.

Practise makes better

The course exercises were fun to revisit and I am thinking of adding them to my annual review process, just to take stock more often and build up an improvement trend analysis. Some exercises will prove useful regularly and some potentially become redundant over time because you have mastered or achieved what you intended.

As a big consumer of books, courses, articles and member of specific mentoring groups, my focus is on implementing what I learn as I go. Each course has edged me forward incrementally thanks to my execution on the gathered knowledge. I am good ad deep diving in new areas if they interest me and when it is new, the application may be conceptually clear but not always immediate from a putting it into practise perspective, this is another reason why reflecting back to progress can be useful.

How does this relate to gamification?

In my view, feedback and progress tracking is pretty much core to everything we have worked on in the past number of years in our gamification design. Seen that a lot of people follow my blogs for personal development or in the learning space, I thought I would share some personal approaches that help me move forward and maybe it can inspire someone else to go back and find useful exercises to bring back to today. Repetition is known to be useful for retention of information. Repeating an exercise with fresh eyes a few years after the first time, may give you surprising new insights and drive you further forward.

Is comparing good for you?

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Is mastery just a matter of hours spent at a topic?

learning mastery on www.gamificationnation.comPopular beliefs are stating that if you spend 10,000 hours involving yourself in a specific topic, you will eventually be a master of that particular topic. Whilst this may hold true, the reality is much more structured. I think this is an area where gamification for learning has simply jumped on the bandwagon and put aside learning science.

The theory of direct instruction, originally coined by Siegfried Engelmann in his work The theory of instruction,  is how a lot of our traditional models of education are structured. Namely, there is an element of explicit teaching, levelled curricula and practise to achieve each level. Students follow a path that aims to level them up once they have mastered the basics of the previous level. In practice, this often involved grouping students by their ability to give them more appropriate lessons.

Teachers matter

In more recent years, professor John Hattie looked into over 500,000 research studies on teaching and the impact it has on student achievement in school and university as the core measure. He found that a teacher could have a positive impact on their students learning outcomes if the teacher is passionate about helping their students learn, they have a strong relationship with their students, and they are clear about what they want their students to learn. In addition, they monitor their student’s progress and adapt their methods accordingly, they use evidence-based learning techniques and also keep improving their teaching style.

I guess we could say that this is something we already knew. We probably all had a teacher at some point in our educational life that stood out for these reasons.

Teaching strategies: what works and what doesn’t

In the same research, John Hattie also points out that certain teaching strategies are better than others. To me, some of these findings were surprising and would also go against some of the techniques promoted in gamification for learning. His top 10 recommended teaching techniques are as follows:

  • Direct Instruction
  • Note Taking & Other Study Skills
  • Spaced Practice
  • Feedback
  • Teaching Metacognitive Skills
  • Teaching Problem Solving Skills
  • Reciprocal Teaching
  • Mastery Learning
  • Concept Mapping
  • Worked Examples

He found that the following techniques had little or no impact on student effectiveness :

  • Giving students control over their learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Teaching test-taking
  • Catering to learning styles
  • Inquiry-based teaching

How does this debunk the 10,000 hours approach?

I read the books that promote 10,000 hours and then you have reached mastery and follow quite a few staunch believers of this material. I always felt there was more to just spending hours on a topic and then my approach is to research the various views on it and dig deeper, which is why this blog post came up.

All the learning science studies point to having a structured approach, where base instruction is required. Even when you learn to play a new game, there is a level of player instruction to get you started. Followed by structured practice of the same skill until it becomes second nature. At that point, you level up and receive another bit of structured teaching on how to play on or with new tools.

Throwing someone in the deep end without any instruction will sink quite a few people forever and make them lose their confidence as well as willingness to try because they have concluded that they won’t make it. However armed with enough basics to swim, this is a good technique to reinforce and review how far someone has come. With specific feedback, it will guide them forwards towards their next level of competence.

To me what learning science makes clear is that learning mastery takes more than just spending a number of hours on a topic.

What does this mean for gamification in learning?

In gamified learning, we often see a self-discovery approach or experimental learning as the panacea that solves all problems. For learners with a base knowledge, this may well be effective, but for absolute beginners, we are missing a core ingredient of teaching the basics. In my view this is why I find escape rooms such a frustrating exercise, I question their validity in achieving learning for the majority even if for now I have no evidence apart from my own experience. I see how they can give insights about the people in your team and their team playability, but I am not convinced they are actually teaching us a topic well.

Many game mechanics, however, are useful in structured teaching and learning such as levels, feedback, self-testing, benchmarks, progression, badges of achievement, etc.

Most of us that come from a training or instructional design background will have explored some of these in our work. I hope that we can spread this message further to all practitioners in game-based learning and gamification, that core instruction is still useful and has a definite place. Achieving that balance between the focus on fun and learning outcomes still needs to be there for our work to be effective.

Gamification trends for 2019

The post Is mastery just a matter of hours spent at a topic? appeared first on Gamification Nation.

Is free food a motivator for employee attraction and retention?

Offering a range of free food items is definitely something that has flown over from American shores to many European subsidiaries and beyond. In some cases because office campuses were built in remote areas, having access to lunchtime restaurants and convenience stores were not available and created the need to feed employees. In urban environments, however, the move to provides free food is more used as a motivational tool to attract and retain employees with the food becoming a benefit of employment.

Many companies even in the UK and the rest of Europe have had on-site canteens for years, but most have a payment or employee discount system. The canteen traditionally allowed for short lunch breaks in factory settings to be adhered to and provided an opportunity for colleagues to socialise. This is still the case in most office eating areas. It is an efficient way to keep employees close to the workplace and keep productivity higher and often started out of necessity. It is in the US where providing all the food for free became more engrained especially in the technology sector with the likes of Google leading the way.

The free food and snack trend facilitates food on the go which tends to work hand in hand with cultures where flexible working hours are expected and often long hours are implied too. Google has been listed at the top spot of being a great place to work for some time and the facilities, food etc are often quoted spontaneously in surveys.

From a practical perspective, providing a place for your people keeps them in-house and get’s them back to work quicker than if they have to step out and find food. In some culture bringing lunch that you prepared at home has been the rule and if you are on a budget it is a great way to keep your expenditure down. Providing a space to eat and take a break I think is a minimum and in some EU countries also a part of employment law.

So is food motivational?

The answer is more nuanced, some people are indeed motivated by food, but not everyone. Having enough disposable income to buy lunch or make a lunch box to bring into work is another factor. In many of the Sillicon Valley offices, wages are not the highest and not sufficient for people to afford housing and food. So in those cases where wages are not enough, food becomes an essential benefit of taking one job over another. Think of it as a basic motivator of food and shelter in a Maslow pyramid for the latter group.

When people have enough disposable income as well as food outlets nearby the company in their budget range, that is when you will see if they are truly motivated by the company provided food.

As a coeliac, finding food I can eat without getting ill is sometimes a mission and a half, so the ease of a chef that knows and understands is a peace of mind decision and for one of my jobs, it made me a regular fan of the canteen. In other places, the free food was limited to sandwiches which typically were not gluten-free and they still forced me out or to live on the free fruit provided.

If your people quote and praise the free food on offer regularly in your employee surveys and it is what sways someone to take your offer over that of other, then you know you have found some food motivated team members. If it is a source of complaints, then explore options. In one company the management team consulted staff and let staff set the menu, which became healthy quick options. In another organisation where there were plenty great food options close by, the employees voted to keep the space for if they wanted to eat their own lunch or something they bought in a convenience store, plus a vending machine for late workers, but they didn’t want a catered canteen.

Depending on the culture and habits, you will find nuances across Europe. In many places, lunch is a social opportunity in others a necessary evil and a dreaded social experiment with people opting to be alone.

How do you get it right?

The key to determining if free food will work for your company is to, first of all, observe behaviours. Know what your staff does for lunch right now, then practically look at the available options. With plenty of good value and good quality outlets close by, maybe food is not an additional perceived benefit. If the options are limited, you may have an opportunity to explore it. I would, in that case, suggest to bring your people in on the decision making and co-create the ideal solution.

Having the right mix of options and selections that appeal to as many as possible is a hard balance to achieve. From a cost-benefit perspective, it may save time and increase social interaction provided mobile phone don’t cloud that. On occasion, people see an increase in employee engagement as measured in their surveys. It is not a given that free food will fix deeper employee engagement problems though, so if that is your reason for an introduction of freebies, think again!

Either way, be creative and explore with your people what kind of free food works as a motivator and what doesn’t or if it does at all. Don’t take it for granted and assume.

When employee retention is not a linear thing

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